Type 2 diabetes

Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the bases for development of the condition of diabetes mellitus type 2 and is one of its characteristics. In a person with IR the excess glucose available will be converted into fat by the liver. When carbohydrates in the diet are reduced to below a certain level (where they are no longer converted into fats, a threshold that varies from person to person), the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance improve, often until they disappear. Starting from this supposition, numerous studies have been conducted which have shown how a ketogenic diet can improve the issues associated with the condition of type 2 diabetes, by improving blood sugar control, improving the profile of cardiovascular disease risk factors (cholesterol, triglycerides) and by allowing the dosage of any hypoglycaemic drugs to be reduced.

Use of a ketogenic diet which therefore makes a reduction in body weight possible (and a consequent overall improvement in metabolic control) and which provides proteins of plant origin and is rich in fibre seems to be a possible avenue to explore in the approach to this condition.


Essential bibliography:

Accurso A, Bernstein RK, Dahlqvist A, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutrition & metabolism. 2008;5:9.

Al-Khalifa A, Mathew TC, Al-Zaid NS, Mathew E, Dashti HM. Therapeutic role of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in diabetes. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2009;25(11-12):1177-1185.

Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Khadada M, et al. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2007;302(1-2):249-256.

Feinman RD, Volek JS. Carbohydrate restriction as the default treatment for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Scandinavian cardiovascular journal : SCJ. 2008;42(4):256-263.

Hussain TA, Mathew TC, Dashti AA, Asfar S, Al-Zaid N, Dashti HM. Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). 2012;28(10):1016-1021.

Paoli A, Rubini A, Volek JS, Grimaldi KA. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. Aug 2013;67(8):789-796.

Paoli A. Ketogenic diet for obesity: friend or foe? International journal of environmental research and public health. 2014;11(2):2092-2107.

Volek JS, Feinman RD. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction. Nutrition & metabolism. 2005;2:31.

Westman EC, Yancy WS, Jr., Mavropoulos JC, Marquart M, McDuffie JR. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-blood sugar index diet on blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition & metabolism. 2008;05:36.

Yancy WS, Jr., Foy M, Chalecki AM, Vernon MC, Westman EC. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes. Nutrition & metabolism. 2005;02:34.

Yancy WS, Jr., Westman EC, McDuffie JR, et al. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight loss. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2010;170(2):136-145.


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